what is the standard production process of shoe making ?

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footwear is a vast industry and there are many types of shoes. what are the general production stages of shoe making ?
related to an answer for: How Shoes are made ?
asked May 29, 2020 by Ananimose

10 Answers

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                             Footwear Factory    Raw Material Store

.Objectives: 

  • To store all necessary materials well ahead of production in order to give support whenever they need.
  • To maintain optimum stock level to avoid over/under stock. 

                           image

Main Functions:

  • To receive material as per purchase order in terms of quantity and quality as per approved swatch.
  • To store the materials in such a way so that they can remain free from all possibility of damage and can be easily located whenever they are needed.
  • To maintain a stock inventory as per item.
  • To supply the material on FIFO basis as per requirement and record it properly.
  • To monitor the stock level as per standard OTB (open to buy) and communicate with the purchase manager.
  • To adjust the stock with the new purchase requirement.
  • To increase the stock turn for regular items.
  • To remain well informed regarding the stock positions of all the items and participate wherever needed.
  • To monitor the old stock and propose for the suitable article to use it.

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answered May 29, 2020 by anonymous
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   Footwear Factory Procurement Department 

Procurement plays a vital role in any manufacturing operation. It is more important in case of export oriented company where the quality and timeliness is a number one priority. Besides that the process ability and productivity also greatly depends on the quality of the raw material and the timely procurement.

                                              

                                    image

 Objectives :
 

  • To make all the necessary materials available well ahead of production freezing.
  • To ensure the competitive price and quality as per approved swatch.
  • To maintain a very minimum stock level to avoid over and under stock.


b.    Main Functions:
 

  • To receive the material requirement just after the production plan.
  • To make adjustment with the available stock.
  • To select the best possible supplier considering the price, timely delivery and consistency in quality.
  • To maintain the suppliers data base.
  • To make purchase order with the appropriate supplier for the particular material.
  • To monitor their processing to ensure timely receiving.
  • To visit the supplier time to time to see their facility and educate them as per our requirement.
  • To invite suppliers to built good relationship.
  • To receive material as per approved quality and receiving date.

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answered May 29, 2020 by shoe abc
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                            Production Planning in footwear factory 

Planning in its broader sense means systematic preparation for action. To decide before start where a company want to go and how they are going to get there.

Therefore, planning is a rational process characteristics of all human behaviors for actions individually or collectively to accomplish certain objectives.


a.    Objectives:

  • To produce and deliver the right quantity of shoes,   
  • Of the right quality,
  • At the right time as required by the customer,
  • In the most economical and efficient manner.
Planning dept

b.    Main Functions:

  • To take export order considering the production facility regarding the technicality, capacity and the timing.
  • To consult with the sample dept. regarding the approved sample, specifications and technical details of the ordered articles.
  • To make a production file along with PD(Product Development) dept. detailing the specifications and the required quantities of material and issue to the concern dept. after necessary approval.
  • To study the consumption of material.
  • To make production plan to facilitate the operation to take necessary preparation in terms of machinery, manpower and material.
  • To give material requirement to the procurement dept.
  • To test material as per Buyer/Customer’s requirement.
  • To consult with the Production Managers regarding the machinery and manpower.
  • To make a checklist for all the necessary items such as equipment, material, accessories, auxiliary chemicals, packing materials etc. and update on daily basis to follow-up and ensure the availability on time. 
  • To maintain liaison with the customer, PD(product development 
  • and make necessary adjustment.
  • To communicate with the customer and provide the necessary service to satisfy them.
  • To conduct a pre-production meeting with the concern people for ensuring un-interrupted production.
  • To give production schedule to the customer as well as the production people and follow it up to maintain.
  • To visit production floor for having a track whether the things are moving in the right direction or not. If not to co-ordinate among the persons concern for necessary adjustment.
  • To give inspection report to the customer for shipment approval.
  • To conduct the third party inspection where ever necessary.
  • To communicate with the shipping dept. for final shipment.
  • To confirm the shipment status to the customer after passing the final inspection.

  

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answered May 29, 2020 by shoe abc
How Shoes are Made ?
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                                                             SHOE MAKING

                                           Product Development Department:  

Product development is the core function of any manufacturing company. It is the basic tool to attract customer and eventually to come to a business contract. This initially developed sample under goes many modification through different stages, finally it is perfected by accommodating the suggestions from both the customers and the manufacturers. Before placing any order to the facility, the Buyer/Customer wants to know whether the factory is capable of producing the styles with the desired quality level or not.  So it is very important to understand the sample development process to control quality and cost in the initial stage 

Objectives: 
 

  • To create   innovative product range to attract potential customers.
  • It must be competitive in the market.
  • It can be produced in the existing manufacturing facility.
  • It should be promptly responsive to the customer 
  • Before finalization of sample, different steps are followed depending on the Buyer/Customer to Buyer/Customer and style to style. The steps are as follows:



                                     1) Initial Sample
                                     2) Salesman sample
                                     3) Advertisement/Press Sample
                                     4) Fitting Sample
                                     5) Confirmation Sample &
                                     6) Pre-Production /Gold seal Sample

These samples are sent to the Buyer/Customer one after another for approval.

Assessment of sample:

Upon receiving the samples, Buyer/Customers check the sample quality,  fitting, finishing etc and gives the feed back within 5-7 days through e-mail . Feedback from the Buyer/Customer comes in three different forms
             1. Accepted,
             2. Not accepted or
             3. Accepted with comments.

After getting their approval, it proceeds step by step. Sometimes the Buyer/Customer suggests some changes in the prepared sample both in terms of technicality and material. 

Bellow The Product Development Flow chart are given
image


SOURCE       All About Shoe Making   

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answered May 29, 2020 by shoe abc
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Making Shoe is a Step-By-Step Process. Bellow chart is a shoe making process chart.

Production Process Chart

Upper Cutting & Prefabrication:

First step in making shoe is to cut the upper material into shoe components as per the required style. There the cutter places the material on the clicking machine and cut it with the help of cutting die /knife to achieve the following objectives.

        1) Receiving of material: 

         2) Receiving of cutting knife:

           3) Practical cutting:

  • After the components are cut, the pieces are checked & counted first by the helper and then by the quality checker and put into poly bag pair by pair.  In case of nonconformity of the components, the bad components are dropped in a bag attached in the cutting table and make the necessary replacement.

  • Upper Cutting & Prefabrication Process Flow Chart

    image
    Upper Cutting Process flow chart

    Cutting leather: The method of cutting “uppers” from a leather is a great importance, and is necessary for cutter to know the structure of the skin. The cutter must know which parts of the skin have better physical properties, the direction of the stretch and the nature and origin of the various defects.  A good cutter will always be cost minded and get maximum utilization from a skin. A good cutter must know  how to use to the maximum the various parts of the leather. 

    Cutting synthetic and fabric: Synthetic material & fabrics are cut in layer.  Depending on the thickness and hardness of the material the number of layers is determined. Some times to maintain the design, particular direction need to be maintained

    Knives: The knives are manufactured from steel.   Double edge cutting knives are in use wherever possible; this minimizes the number of knives required, so reducing cost.

    Two heights:  19 mm. for leather
    32 mm. for textiles and other multi layer cutting.  

    Cutting BlockThe blocks on which leathers cut are made of poly propylene or phenolic resin block, the cutter should always use the entire surface area of the block to wear it uniformly, this saves knives and improves cutting quality.

    Machine:  Basically two types of cutting machines are in use 

  • Swinging  head cutting machine

  • Beam  head cutting machine

  • Quality Inspection: After completion of all the operations in the cutting & prefabrication, each and every component are checked pair by pair, put in poly bag and store in the cutting dept. for delivery. In case of non conformity, respective components are replaced.

SOURCE        All About Shoe Making  

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answered May 29, 2020 by SHOE MAG
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Basic of shoes-Synthetic and others 

Synthetic upper materials are most commonly made of coated fabrics. Coated fabrics can be grouped in three main categories
    • Polyurethane-coated fabrics(PUCFs)
    • Polyvinyl-chloride-coated(PVC) fabrics
    • Poromerics
    PUCFs for uppers are made of cotton or polyster/cotton base fabrics with a thin coating polyurethane on the fabric base. 

    The properties of PUCFs for uppers are:

      • Good imitation of the softer leathers: Polyurethane-coated fabrics are a good imitation in appearance and feel of the softer leathers and they are available in a wide range of colors.
      • Soft and light-weight
      • Comfortable to wear
      • Less durable than leather and they are prone to abrasion damage and snagging. This is PUCFs main disadvantage 
      • PVC-coated fabrics for uppers are made of a woven. Knitted or non-woven bases are coated with a layer of plasticised PVC which may have a solid or a cellular structure.  

         The Properties of PVCs for Uppers are:

        • Little "give" to the foot. Synthetic shoes do not have permanent "give" like leather and do not tend to return to their original shape and size when the shoes are not being worn. 
        • Impermeable to water vapor: The main synthetic upper materials use are not as permeable to water vapor as leather.
        • Good abrasion resistance: In wear, these materials usually have good abrasion resistance. 
        • Easy to clean
        • Comparatively inexpensive.
      • Poromerics-coated fabrics for Uppers are made of a textile and/or polymer base with a thick porous polyurethane surface layer. Poromerics is a name given to a type of synthetic material possessing a leather like appearance and properties 
      •  The properties of poromerics for uppers are: Good wear performance: Reasonably water repellent: . 

        Fabric for shoe upper                  
             
        Fabrics: A wide range of fabrics is used for shoe uppers, both outers and linings. Fabrics outers are necessarily heavier in weight and are usually of woven(canvas) of kint construction in natural or synthetic yarns, usually combined with another textile for uppers. Linings also include woven and knitted fabrics as well as non-woven textiles which can be impregnated with plastic to increase their durability.

         

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      answered May 29, 2020 by anonymous
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      Basic of shoes-Leather Upper

      • Shoe Materials
        • Upper: The type of materials commonly used in shoe uppers are:
          • Leather 
          • Synthetics
          • Fabrics
          • Rubber
        • Cattle, Cow or buffalo are the main source of supply although exotic materials such as ostrich, crocodile, etc. are sometimes used.

        • The skin of most animals consists of three main layers, the:
          • Grain: The grain is the outermost on the animal. Best leather have the grain layer intact. Flawed leather have the grain buffed or corrected before finishing.  
            • Corium: The corium is the main or central layer. The corium has thicker fibers that provide most of the material strength.
            • Flesh: The flesh is a thin layer between the corium and the actual flesh of the animal. The flesh is of little value in the finished leather and it is usually partly or wholly removed.
          • The skin is converted to leather through process called tanning. The two types of tanning are:
            • Chrome: Chrome tanning is the most widely used tanning process today. The hides are placed in large revolving drum, where they are soaked and agitated in a solution of chromium sulfate. The leather turns blue or green as a result of the tanning. After removal from the drums the skins are split and shaved for even thickness.
            • Vegetable: Vegetable tanning is a slow process. It uses extracts of bark, wood, etc. It is now used only for sole leather.
          • The hide is divided into:
            • Five sections for upper leather
              • Bend: The bend is the central part of the hide. It has the best quality and it is the most wear resistant. It is used for vamps.
              • Shoulder: The shoulder is the neck part of the animal. It has some defects (Wrinkles around the neck). It is used for making tongues.
              • Butt: The butt is the back part of the animal and it is not very good quality. It is used for linings.
              • Head and Feet: The head and feet are the worst part of the hide and they are not generally used.
              • Belly: The belly being the part of the body which subjected to most movements, it has a different structure than other parts. It has longer fibers, which make it easier to stretch. It is one of the poorest parts of the hide.
        • image

           
        • The properties of leather for uppers are:

          • Plasticity: The properties and appearance of leather makes it very suitable for shoe uppers.
          • Perspiration absorption and transmission of it as water vapor: Leather usually absorbs large quantities of perspiration and, depending on the finish, transmits it as water vapor. 
          • The permeability of leather means that normally, it is not completely waterproof. 
          • Resistant: Most leathers have good resistance to flexing in walking.
          • Expensive: Leather is one of the most expensive materials used for shoe uppers.
          • Traditional: Leather has been used for hundreds of years in shoe construction.
      • SOURCE    All About Shoe Making   

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      answered May 29, 2020 by anonymous
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      The two major parts of a shoe are the upper and the bottom 

        • Bottom: The bottom is comprised of the:
          • Sole: The sole is the layer of material covering bottom of the shoe and it is the walking surface of the shoe.
          • Heel: The heel is the component of the shoe that supports the back part of the foot (Lifts from the layer of material used to build up the heel; the top lift is the wearing layer of the heel). Today most soles and heels are pre-fabricated as a single bottoming unit, eliminating a series of operations on the assembly line and reducing costs.
          • Insole: The insole is the inner component of the shoe and it is considered to be the foundation of the shoe since the upper is attached to it. It is made from materials that will absorb moisture from perspiration and it is molded to conform to the bottom of the last before the upper is lasted to ensure the comfort and the shape of the shoe.
          • Shank: The shank is a strip of metal, or other material, shaped to the inside profile of the last to reinforce the waist of the shoe so it is comfortable and maintains its shape during wear.
          • Bottom filling: The bottom filling is a flexible material used to fill the cavity between the insole and the sole.
          • Sock: The sock is a piece of material shaped to cover or part of the insole. It is inserted into the completed shoe and usually bears the shoe brand name. 
      •            
        image
        Bottom Parts of a shoe

        SOURCE     All About Shoe Making

         

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        answered May 29, 2020 by anonymous
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        The two major parts of a shoe are the upper and the bottom

        • Upper: The upper is comprised of the:
          • Quarters: The quarters enclose the sides and back of the foot and are joined at the back seam.
          • Vamp: The vamp covers the toe and forepart or front of the shoe.
          • Toe/toe cap: The toe/toe cap refers only to the foremost (most forward) area of the shoe.
          • Feather edge: The feather edge is not really part of the upper . It is the lower extremity where the upper meets the sole or insole.
          • Lasting Allowance: When the patterns are cut, an additional margin of material is added to the feather edge fro stitching. This is what is called the lasting allowance.
            • Counter: A simple shoe is made up of two quarters, which are joined at the back. It is sometimes desirable, however, to eliminate this back heel seam so that the back of the shoe is cut as one piece. When this is done, that one piece is called a counter.
            • Wing Cap: The wing cap os a conventional toe cap set squarely across the shoe. A wing cap is angled back to give a streamline effect.
            • Tongue: The tongue is a strip of material found under the lacing or fastening of the shoe. A vamp may have a separate tongue or the vamp and tongue may be cut all in one piece.
            • Quarter facings: The front panels at the lace-up area of the shoe are called facings or quarter facings. The facings may either be separate piece or part of the quarter.
            • Topline or quarter topline: the top of the shoe which surrounds the opening of the foot is called the topline or quarter topline.
            • Backstrap: Since the heel seam is often subjected to considerable strain both in lasting and wear. It is common to reinforce it with backstrap.
          • All the upper pieces are fully lined with one or more linings. The linings of the shoe help grip the foot and cover the inside materials.

            image
            Parts of Shoe Upper                                                                   continued.......

            SOURCE             All About Shoe Making



             

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        answered May 29, 2020 by SHOE MAG
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        Production Process - Sewing Department 

        The Sewing Dept. plays a very important role in shoe making. It has an impact both in terms of functionality and outlook. Maximum value addition in a shoe making happens  in sewing Department. Both for functional and decorative feature , it is important to use number of stitches per cm. Therefore utmost care should be taken in the sewing operations. Besides that the maximum job content, workforce and machinery are involved in the sewing dept. Let's see sewing objective and main functions.

        Objective: 

        • To stitch the cut components of uppers as per plan, size assortment and approved sample within the stipulated time.
        • To ensure the best utilization of the manpower and machinery.
        • To ensure the stitching of right quantity of upper in the right quality in the most efficient manner.

        Main Functions:

        • TO make an analysis of the file(Production Guide), production plan received from planning and the approved sample. In case of any deviation to be communicated to the person concern and get it corrected.
        • To ensure necessary equipment, machinery and manpower are available well ahead of production start time for avoiding any sort of interruption during production.
        • Practical Stitching:

        • Preparation: Before starting the job, a preparatory check is done of the approved sample, component, related accessories, guides, gadgets, machinery and the required manpower. Thread color & number to be matched with the approved style. Needle to be set as per thread number, stitch length to be adjusted as per sample. marking ink & cleaner to be selected well ahead of production.
        • Line Setting: Since every style have their uniqueness in sewing, it requires different setting in the sewing line for the sequential operation avoiding repetition of movement.
        • One pair is stitched first following the approved sample to check every technical details.Consult with the product development dept. and get it approved after necessary correction if required.
        • After getting the approval, the volume production stats, components are sometimes reinforced, laminate and progressively stitched together such as collars are joined to quarters, tongue to vamps, vamps to quarters, eyelets to uppers and so on depending on the style using a wide variety of specialized sewing machines until the upper is completely stitched. Sequential operation of a typical sewing line shown bellow:

          a typical sewing process for a stitchdown shoe

          Each operator along with the helper is responsible for efficiently producing high quality work. They must follow the approved sample. Proper thread, needle, number of stitches per cm, distances from edges or other raws of stitches to be maintained. Loose threads to be trimmed, shoe components are straight and wrinkle free during attachment. Line supervisor check the quality different point and gives technical solutions.

        • At the end of the sewing process the quality controller inspect the stitched upper pair by pair so that a standard of excellence is maintained. After completion of stitching, the stitched uppers are stored in the section.
        • Delivery: Depending in the style, some of the uppers are directly delivered to the lasting line and some of them to the Hand Sewing for Moccasin Stitch.

        • Relation Between thread and Needle: Very important for sewing

           THREAD NEEDLE (LR/LL) NEEDLE (DP/PF)
            10               160-180                       22-24
            20               130-140                 20-22
            30               120-130                 20-22
            40               100-110                 18-20
            60                90-100                 12-14

          SOURCE            All About Shoe Making  

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        answered May 30, 2020 by anonymous
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